- How common is bacterial meningitis?
- How can you tell the difference between viral and bacterial meningitis?
- How does one get bacterial meningitis?
- What are the symptoms of a CSF leak?
- What does high glucose in CSF indicate?
- Does high protein in CSF mean MS?
- Why is CSF glucose low in bacterial meningitis?
- What precautions are used for bacterial meningitis?
- Is CSF clear or cloudy with bacterial meningitis?
- Is bacterial meningitis Gram positive or negative?
- Is CSF leak an emergency?
- How can you test for meningitis at home?
- What fluid is used to detect meningitis?
- What is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis?
- What does CSF look like in bacterial meningitis?
- Why is protein high in CSF in bacterial meningitis?
- Is CSF high in glucose?
- What should you do if you are exposed to bacterial meningitis?
- How long can you have meningitis without knowing?
- Why does bacterial meningitis cause head end elevation?
- How do you read a CSF report?
- What are the changes in CSF sample in bacterial meningitis?
- What happens if meningitis is left untreated?
- How long does it take to recover from bacterial meningitis?
- How easily is bacterial meningitis spread?
- What color is CSF?
- Does CSF smell?
- What part of your neck hurts with meningitis?
- How long is a person with bacterial meningitis contagious?
- What does high protein in CSF indicate?
How common is bacterial meningitis?
In the United States, approximately 2,600 sporadic cases of Bacterial Meningitis are reported each year.
Meningitis caused by pneumococcal infections affects about 1.1 in 100,000 individuals.
Meningitis caused by haemophilus influenza affects about .
2 in 100,000 individuals..
How can you tell the difference between viral and bacterial meningitis?
The clues that the doctor uses are the levels of white cells, protein and glucose in the CSF. Typically in bacterial meningitis the white cell count is much higher than in viral meningitis (and is a different type of white cell), the protein is much higher and the glucose is much lower than in viral meningitis.
How does one get bacterial meningitis?
Bacterial meningitis occurs when these bacteria get in your bloodstream and travel to your brain and spinal cord to start an infection. Most bacteria that cause this form of infection are spread through close personal contact, such as: coughing. sneezing.
What are the symptoms of a CSF leak?
The most common symptoms of a spinal CSF leak are:Positional headaches, which feel worse when sitting upright and better when lying down; caused by intracranial hypotension.Nausea and vomiting.Neck pain or stiffness.Change in hearing (muffled, ringing in the ears)Sense of imbalance.Photophobia (sensitivity to light)More items…
What does high glucose in CSF indicate?
Chemical meningitis, inflammatory conditions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia also cause hypoglycorrhachia (low glucose level in CSF). Elevated levels of glucose in the blood is the only cause of having an elevated CSF glucose level.
Does high protein in CSF mean MS?
Cerebral Spinal Fluid Studies Oligoclonal Immunoglobulin Bands can be identified in the CSF of MS patients via electrophoresis. The overall protein level is also slightly elevated – up to 0.1 g/L. Protein level can be higher if the patient is going through a marked relapse (i.e.,. severe optic neuritis).
Why is CSF glucose low in bacterial meningitis?
The reason for the reduced glucose levels associated with bacterial meningitis was believed to be the need for glucose as fuel by infiltrating immune cells in response to infection. However, the possibility that the bacteria itself could manipulate glucose concentrations in the brain had not been explored before now.
What precautions are used for bacterial meningitis?
What infection control precautions are required? Meningococcal meningitis patients should be placed on droplet precautions (private room, mask for all entering the room) until they have completed 24 hours of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Negative pressure ventilation is not required.
Is CSF clear or cloudy with bacterial meningitis?
Bacterial meningitis is diagnosed by CSF examination. Typical findings are: elevated opening pressure, elevated protein and hypoglycorrhachia. The fluid appearance may be cloudy or turbid. The CSF leukocyte concentration is usually elevated with a neutrophilic pleocytosis.
Is bacterial meningitis Gram positive or negative?
Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by different Gram-negative bacteria including meningococcal and H. influenzae. This article covers Gram-negative meningitis caused by the following bacteria: Escherichia coli.
Is CSF leak an emergency?
A CSF leak is a serious health issue. It involves this type of fluid escaping through a tear in the dura mater. The symptoms of a CSF leak include fluid drainage from the ears or nose and a headache that worsens when the head is upright.
How can you test for meningitis at home?
Press a clear glass tumbler firmly against the rash. If you can see the marks clearly through the glass seek urgent medical help immediately. Check the entire body. Look out for tiny red or brown pin-prick marks which can change into larger red or purple blotches and blood blisters.
What fluid is used to detect meningitis?
If bacterial meningitis is suspected, CSF is the best clinical specimen to use for isolation, identification, and characterization of the etiological agents. Suspected agents should include N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and H.
What is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis?
Several strains of bacteria can cause acute bacterial meningitis, most commonly: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). This bacterium is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, young children and adults in the United States. It more commonly causes pneumonia or ear or sinus infections.
What does CSF look like in bacterial meningitis?
Lumbar puncture (LP) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in bacterial meningitis include the following: Appearance: Clear, cloudy, or purulent. Opening pressure: Elevated (>25 cm H2 O) WBC count: >100 cells/µL (>90% PMN); partially treated cases may have as low as 1 WBC/µL.
Why is protein high in CSF in bacterial meningitis?
CSF protein Bacterial meningitis leads to a more permeable blood brain barrier (due to increased inflammation). Protein leaks into the subarachnoid space from the blood, resulting in markedly increased CSF protein levels.
Is CSF high in glucose?
Normal levels of glucose in the CSF are greater than 50 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL, or 2.8 mmol/L to 4.4 mmol/L. If your levels are lower, you may have an infection. Your healthcare provider will look at your CSF glucose level along with the other CSF tests, and possibly other tests, to better understand what your results mean.
What should you do if you are exposed to bacterial meningitis?
Acute bacterial meningitis must be treated immediately with intravenous antibiotics and sometimes corticosteroids. This helps to ensure recovery and reduce the risk of complications, such as brain swelling and seizures. The antibiotic or combination of antibiotics depends on the type of bacteria causing the infection.
How long can you have meningitis without knowing?
Symptoms of bacterial meningitis can appear quickly or over several days. Typically they develop within 3 to 7 days after exposure. Later symptoms of bacterial meningitis can be very serious (e.g., seizures, coma). For this reason, anyone who thinks they may have meningitis should see a doctor as soon as possible.
Why does bacterial meningitis cause head end elevation?
The elevation in protein is thought to be due to damage to the blood-brain barrier and leakage of serum proteins into the CSF. CSF proteins are usually highest in bacterial meningitis and can reach 1,000 mg/dL.
How do you read a CSF report?
Interpretation of CSF results from lumbar puncture (LP)Appearance: Clear.Opening pressure: 10-20 cmCSF.WBC count: 0-5 cells/µL. < 2 polymorphonucleocytes [PMN]) ... Glucose level: >60% of serum glucose.Protein level: < 45 mg/dL.Consider additional tests: CSF culture, others depending on clinical findings.
What are the changes in CSF sample in bacterial meningitis?
Typical CSF abnormalities associated with bacterial meningitis include the following: Turbidity. Increased opening pressure (>180 mm water) Pleocytosis (usually of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes); WBC counts > 10 cells/mm.
What happens if meningitis is left untreated?
If left untreated, the infection can cause brain damage or even death. Antibiotics can usually eliminate the bacteria. Still, about 10 to 15 percent of cases result in death even when antibiotics are used. Among people who recover, 11 to 19 percent will experience long-term complications.
How long does it take to recover from bacterial meningitis?
Treatment at home This type of meningitis will normally get better on its own without causing any serious problems. Most people feel better within 7 to 10 days. In the meantime, it can help to: get plenty of rest.
How easily is bacterial meningitis spread?
People spread meningococcal bacteria to other people by sharing respiratory and throat secretions (saliva or spit). Generally, it takes close (for example, coughing or kissing) or lengthy contact to spread these bacteria. Fortunately, they are not as contagious as germs that cause the common cold or the flu.
What color is CSF?
Color of the fluid—normal is clear and colorless. Changes in the color of the CSF are not diagnostic but may point to additional substances in the fluid. Yellow, orange, or pink CSF may indicate the breakdown of blood cells due to bleeding into the CSF or the presence of bilirubin.
Does CSF smell?
Clear, watery drainage usually from only one side of the nose or one ear when tilting the head forward. Salty or metallic taste in mouth. Drainage down back of throat. Loss of smell.
What part of your neck hurts with meningitis?
A headache caused by meningitis is typically described as severe and unrelenting. It does not subside by taking an aspirin. Stiff neck. This symptom most commonly involves a reduced ability to flex the neck forward, also called nuchal rigidity.
How long is a person with bacterial meningitis contagious?
What is the incubation period of Bacterial Meningitis and how long is it contagious? Symptoms generally develop 1-10 days after exposure, but usually less than 4 days. Meningitis is contagious until at least 24 hours after treatment with antibiotics the bacteria is sensitive to.
What does high protein in CSF indicate?
An abnormal protein level in the CSF suggests a problem in the central nervous system. Increased protein level may be a sign of a tumor, bleeding, nerve inflammation, or injury. A blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can cause the rapid buildup of protein in the lower spinal area.